USDOT HazMat Placards

Class 7 Radioactives (pg 2 of 2)
49CFR 173 Subpart I

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Low toxicity alpha emitters are:
  1. Natural uranium, depleted uranium, and natural thorium;
  2. Ores, concentrates or tailings containing uranium-235, uranium-238, thorium-232, thorium-228 and thorium-230; or
  3. Alpha emitters with a half-life of less than 10 days.
Maximum normal operating pressure means the maximum gauge pressure that would develop in a receptacle in a period of one year, in the absence of venting or cooling, under the heat conditions specified in 10 CFR 71.71(c)(1)
Multilateral approval means approval of a package or shipment by the relevant competent authority of the country of origin and of each country through or into which the package or shipment is to be transported. This definition does not include approval from a country over which Class 7 (radioactive) materials are carried in aircraft, if there is no scheduled stop in that country.
Natural thorium means thorium with the naturally occurring distribution of thorium isotopes (essentially 100 percent by weight of thorium-232).
Non-fixed radioactive contamination means radioactive contamination that can be readily removed from a surface by wiping with an absorbent material. Non-fixed (removable) radioactive contamination is not significant if it does not exceed the limits specified in 49CFR 173.443.
Normal form Class 7 (radioactive) material means Class 7 (radioactive) material which has not been demonstrated to qualify as "special form Class 7 (radioactive) material."
Package means, for Class 7 (radioactive) materials, the packaging together with its radioactive contents as presented for transport.
  1. "Excepted package" means a packaging together with its excepted Class 7 (radioactive) materials as specified in 49CFR 173.421-173.426 and 173.428.
  2. "Type A package" means a packaging that, together with its radioactive contents limited to A1 or A2 as appropriate, meets the requirements of 49CFR 173.410 and 173.412 and is designed to retain the integrity of containment and shielding required by this part under normal conditions of transport as demonstrated by the tests set forth in 49CFR 173.465 or 49CFR 173.466, as appropriate. A Type A package does not require Competent Authority Approval.
  3. "Type B package" means a Type B packaging that, together with its radioactive contents, is designed to retain the integrity of containment and shielding required by this part when subjected to the normal conditions of transport and hypothetical accident test conditions set forth in 10 CFR Part 71.
    1. "Type B(U) package" means a Type B packaging that, together with its radioactive contents, for international shipments requires unilateral approval only of the package design and of any stowage provisions that may be necessary for heat dissipation.
    2. "Type B(M) package" means a Type B packaging, together with its radioactive contents, that for international shipments requires multilateral approval of the package design, and may require approval of the conditions of shipment. Type B(M) packages are those Type B package designs which have a maximum normal operating pressure of more than 700 kilopascals per square centimeter (100 pounds per square inch) gauge or a relief device which would allow the release of Class 7 (radioactive) material to the environment under the hypothetical accident conditions specified in 10 CFR Part 71.
  4. "Industrial package" means a packaging that, together with its low specific activity (LSA) material or surface contaminated object (SCO) contents, meets the requirements of CFR 49173.410 and 173.411. Industrial packages are categorized in CFR 49173.411 as either:
    1. "Industrial package Type 1 (IP-1)";
    2. "Industrial package Type 2 (IP-2)"; or
    3. "Industrial package Type 3 (IP-3)".
Packaging means, for Class 7 (radioactive) materials, the assembly of components necessary to ensure compliance with the packaging requirements of this subpart. It may consist of one or more receptacles, absorbent materials, spacing structures, thermal insulation, radiation shielding, service equipment for filling, emptying, venting and pressure relief, and devices for cooling or absorbing mechanical shocks. The conveyance, tie-down system, and auxiliary equipment may sometimes be designated as part of the packaging.
Radiation level means the radiation dose-equivalent rate expressed in millisievert(s) per hour or mSv/h (millirem(s) per hour or mrem/h). Neutron flux densities may be converted into radiation levels according to Table 1:
Table 1: Neutron Fluence Rates to be Regarded as Equivalent to a Radiation Level of 0.01 mSv/h (1 mrem/h) 1
Energy of neutronFlux density equivalent to 0.01 mSv/h (1 mrem/h) neutrons per square centimeter per second (n/cm2/s)
1 Flux densities equivalent for energies between those listed in this table may be obtained by linear interpolation.
Thermal (2.510E-8)MeV272.0
1 keV272.0
10 keV281.0
100 keV47.0
500 keV11.0
1 MeV7.5
5 MeV6.4
10 MeV6.7
Radioactive contents means a Class 7 (radioactive) material, together with any contaminated liquids or gases within the package.
Radioactive instrument and article means any manufactured instrument and article such as an instrument, clock, electronic tube or apparatus, or similar instrument and article having Class 7 (radioactive) material in gaseous or non-dispersible solid form as a component part.
Radioactive material means any material having a specific activity greater than 70 Bq per gram (0.002 microcurie per gram) (see definition of "specific activity").
Special form Class 7 (radioactive) material means Class 7 (radioactive) material which satisfies the following conditions:
  1. It is either a single solid piece or is contained in a sealed capsule that can be opened only by destroying the capsule;
  2. The piece or capsule has at least one dimension not less than 5 millimeters (0.2 inch); and
  3. It satisfies the test requirements of CFR 49173.469. Special form encapsulations designed in accordance with the requirements of CFR 49173.389(g) in effect on June 30, 1983 (see 49CFR Part 173, revised as of October 1, 1982), and constructed prior to July 1, 1985 and special form encapsulations designed in accordance with the requirements of CFR 49173.403 in effect on March 31, 1996 (see 49CFR Part 173, revised as of October 1, 1995), and constructed prior to April 1, 1997, may continue to be used. Any other special form encapsulation must meet the requirements of this paragraph.
Specific activity of a radionuclide means the activity of the radionuclide per unit mass of that nuclide. The specific activity of a material in which the radionuclide is essentially uniformly distributed is the activity per unit mass of the material.
Surface Contaminated Object (SCO) means a solid object which is not itself radioactive but which has Class 7 (radioactive) material distributed on any of its surfaces. SCO must be in one of two groups with surface activity not exceeding the following limits:
  1. SCO-I: A solid object on which:
    1. The non-fixed contamination on the accessible surface averaged over 300 cm2 (or the area of the surface if less than 300 cm2) does not exceed 4 Bq/cm2 (10-4 microcurie/cm2) for beta and gamma and low toxicity alpha emitters, or 0.4 Bq/cm2 (10-5 microcurie/cm2) for alpha emitters;
    2. The fixed contamination on the accessible surface averaged over 300 cm2 (or the area of the surface if less than 300 cm2) does not exceed 4 x 104 Bq/cm2 (1.0 microcurie/cm2) for beta and gamma and low toxicity alpha emitters, or 4 x 103 Bq/cm2 (0.1 microcurie/cm2) for all other alpha emitters; and
    3. The non-fixed contamination plus the fixed contamination on the inaccessible surface averaged over 300 cm2 (or the area of the surface if less than 300 cm2) does not exceed 4 x 104 Bq/cm2 (1 microcurie/cm2) for beta and gamma and low toxicity alpha emitters, or 4 x 103 Bq/cm2 (0.1 microcurie/cm2) for all other alpha emitters.
  2. SCO-II: A solid object on which the limits for SCO-I are exceeded and on which:
    1. The non-fixed contamination on the accessible surface averaged over 300 cm2 (or the area of the surface if less than 300 cm2) does not exceed 400 Bq/cm2 (10-2 microcurie/cm2) for beta and gamma and low toxicity alpha emitters or 40 Bq/cm2 (10-3 microcurie/cm2) for all other alpha emitters;
    2. The fixed contamination on the accessible surface averaged over 300 cm2 (or the area of the surface if less than 300 cm2) does not exceed 8 x 105 Bq/cm2 (20 microcurie/cm2) for beta and gamma and low toxicity alpha emitters, or 8 x 104 Bq/cm2 (2 microcuries/cm2) for all other alpha emitters; and
    3. The non-fixed contamination plus the fixed contamination on the inaccessible surface averaged over 300 cm2 (or the area of the surface if less than 300 cm2) does not exceed 8 x 105 Bq/cm2 (20 microcuries/cm2) for beta and gamma and low toxicity alpha emitters, or 8 x 104 Bq/cm2 (2 microcuries/cm2) for all other alpha emitters.
Transport index (TI) means the dimensionless number (rounded up to the next tenth) placed on the label of a package to designate the degree of control to be exercised by the carrier during transportation. The transport index is determined as follows:
  1. For nonfissile material packages, the number determined by multiplying the maximum radiation level in milliSievert(s) per hour at one meter (3.3 feet) from the external surface of the package by 100 (equivalent to the maximum radiation level in millirem per hour at one meter (3.3 feet)); or
  2. For fissile material packages, the number determined by multiplying the maximum radiation level in milliSievert per hour at one meter (3.3 feet) from any external surface of the package by 100 (equivalent to the maximum radiation level in millirem per hour at one meter (3.3 feet)) or, for criticality control purposes, the number obtained by dividing 50 by the allowable number of packages which may be transported together, whichever number is larger.
Type A quantity means a quantity of Class 7 (radioactive) material, the aggregate radioactivity which does not exceed A1 for special form Class 7 (radioactive) material or A2 for normal form Class 7 (radioactive) material, where A1 and A2 values are given in CFR 49173.435 or are determined in accordance with CFR 49173.433.
Type B quantity means a quantity of material greater than a Type A quantity.
Unilateral approval means approval of a package solely by the competent authority of the country of origin.
Unirradiated thorium means thorium containing not more than 10 -7 grams uranium-233 per gram of thorium-232.
Unirradiated uranium means uranium containing not more than 10 -6 grams plutonium per gram of uranium-235 and a fission product activity of not more than 9 MBq (0.24 millicuries) of fission products per gram of uranium-235.
Uranium-natural, depleted or enriched means the following:
  1. "Natural uranium" means uranium with the naturally occurring distribution of uranium isotopes (approximately 0.711 weight percent uranium-235, and the remainder essentially uranium-238).
  2. "Depleted uranium" means uranium containing less uranium-235 than the naturally occurring distribution of uranium isotopes.
  3. "Enriched uranium" means uranium containing more uranium-235 than the naturally occurring distribution of uranium isotopes.

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Last updated: Feb 2007

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