Chemistry & Environmental Dictionary

Fahrenheit - Freezing Point


The temperature scale where 32 degrees is the freezing point of water and 212 degrees at 760mm Hg (sea level) is the boiling point of water. To convert from Fahrenheit to centigrade, subtract 32 and then divide by 1.8 ((F-32)/1.8). To convert from centigrade into Fahrenheit, multiply the centigrade temperature by 1.8 then add 32 to the product (C*1.8+32=F). This scale is named for G. D. Fahrenheit (1686-1736), the German physicist, who invented it and was the individual who introduced the use of mercury (Hg) instead of alcohol in thermometers. Because of the health dangers related with mercury, the use of mercury in thermometers is losing favor and once again alcohol thermometers are becoming more popular.

Filling Orbital

The orbital of an element that is only partially filled with electrons when an atom is at a neutral state electrically.


Formation of fibrous tissue as a reaction or as a repair process; may be result of treatment and/or disease.

First Ionization Potential (first ionization energy)

The minimum amount of energy needed to remove the outermost (highest energy) electron from a neutral atom in the gaseous state.

Freezing Point

see melting point

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