Periodic Table of Elements

Element Aluminum - Al

Comprehensive data on the chemical element Aluminum is provided on this page; including scores of properties, element names in many languages, most known nuclides of Aluminum. Common chemical compounds are also provided for many elements. In addition technical terms are linked to their definitions and the menu contains links to related articles that are a great aid in one's studies.

Aluminum Menu

Overview of Aluminum

Aluminum's Name in Other Languages

  • Latin: Aluminium
  • Czech: Hliník
  • Croatian: Aluminij
  • French: Aluminium
  • German: Aluminium - r
  • Italian: Alluminio
  • Norwegian: Aluminium
  • Portuguese: Alumínio
  • Russian: Алюминий
  • Spanish: Alumínio
  • Swedish: Aluminium

Atomic Structure of Aluminum

Chemical Properties of Aluminum

Physical Properties of Aluminum

  • Atomic Mass Average: 26.98154
  • Boiling Point: 2740K 2467°C 4473°F
  • Coefficient of lineal thermal expansion/K-1: 23.03E-6
  • Conductivity
    Electrical: 0.377 106/cm Ω
    Thermal: 2.37 W/cmK
  • Density: 2.702g/cc @ 300K
  • Description:
    Silvery, light weight, non-magnetic, non-sparking, malleable metal
  • Elastic Modulus:
    • Bulk: 76/GPa
    • Rigidity: 26/GPa
    • Youngs: 70/GPa
  • Enthalpy of Atomization: 322.2 kJ/mole @ 25°C
  • Enthalpy of Fusion: 10.67 kJ/mole
  • Enthalpy of Vaporization: 293.7 kJ/mole
  • Flammablity Class: Combustible Solid, fine dust is easily ignited
  • Freezing Point: see melting point
  • Hardness Scale
    • Brinell: 245 MN m-2
    • Mohs: 2.75
    • Vickers: 167 MN m-2
  • Heat of Vaporization: 293.4kJ/mol
  • Melting Point: 933.4K 660.25°C 1220.45°F
  • Molar Volume: 9.99 cm3/mole
  • Optical Reflectivity: 71%
  • Physical State (at 20°C & 1atm): Solid
  • Specific Heat: 0.9J/gK
  • Vapor Pressure = 2.42E-06Pa@660.25°C

Regulatory / Health

  • CAS Number
    • 7429-90-5 powder, coated
  • UN/NA ID and ERG Guide Number
    • 1396  / 138 powder, uncoated
    • NA9260  / 169 molten
    • UN1309  / 170 powder, coated
  • RTECS: BD0330000
  • NFPA 704
    • Health: 0
    • Fire: 1
    • Reactivity: 1
    • Special Hazard:
  • OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)
    • TWA: 15 mg/m3 total particulate
       5 mg/m3 respirable particulate
  • OSHA PEL Vacated 1989
    • TWA: 15 mg/m3 total particulate
       5 mg/m3 respirable particulate
  • NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit (REL)
    • TWA: 10 mg/m3 total particulate
       5 mg/m3 respirable particulate
  • Routes of Exposure: Inhalation; Skin and/or eye contact
  • Target Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system
  • Levels In Humans:
    Note: this data represents naturally occuring levels of elements in the typical human, it DOES NOT represent recommended daily allowances.
    • Blood/mg dm-3: 0.39
    • Bone/p.p.m: 4-27
    • Liver/p.p.m: 3023
    • Muscle/p.p.m: 0.7-28
    • Daily Dietary Intake: 2.45 mg
    • Total Mass In Avg. 70kg human: 60 mg

Who / Where / When / How

  • Discoverer: Hans Christian Oersted
  • Discovery Location: Copenhagen Denmark
  • Discovery Year: 1825
  • Name Origin:
    Latin: alumen (alun)
  • Abundance of Aluminum:
    • Earth's Crust/p.p.m.: 82000
    • Seawater/p.p.m.:
      • Atlantic Suface: 0.00097
      • Atlantic Deep: 0.00052
      • Pacific Surface: 0.00013
      • Pacific Deep: 0.000013
    • Atmosphere/p.p.m.: N/A
    • Sun (Relative to H=1E12): 3300000
  • Sources of Aluminum:
    Most plentiful metal in earth's crust (8%), but never occurs in free form. Obtained by electrolysis from bauxite (Al2O2). Total world production is around 15,000,000 tons per year. Main mining areas are Surinam, Jamaica, Ghana, Indonesia and Russia.
  • Uses of Aluminum:
    Kitchen utensils, building decorations, electrical transmission (not nearly as conductive as copper, but cheaper). Alloys containing copper, magnesium, silicon, manganese and other metals are much stronger and more durable than aluminum, making aluminum useful in the manufacture of aircraft and rockets.
  • Additional Notes:
    While aluminum was discovered by Hans Christian Oersted, Denmark, 1825 (impure form); most credit Wohler with isolating it in1827. Actually the ancient Greeks and Romans used alum (aluminum sulfate with potassium) in medicine and in dying. de Morveau recognized the base in alum in1761 and proposed it be called alumine. Lavoisier thought that alum was an oxide of this undiscovered metal. In 1807 Davy proposed the name alumium for this undiscovered metal, but it wasn't until 1827 that Wohler actually isolated aluminum, though an impure form was isolated by Oersted two years earlier. The new metal was called aluminum. Two years later it was changed to aluminium to conform with the "ium" in most other elements. American Chemical Society changed the spelling back to aluminum in 1925, which we still use. England and elsewhere in the world they still spell it aluminium. So if you hear someone say "al-u-min'-i-um foil" instead of aluminum foil, you'll know where it came from.

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A list of reference sources used to compile the data provided on our periodic table of elements can be found on the main periodic table page.

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