Periodic Table of Elements

Element Beryllium - Be

Comprehensive data on the chemical element Beryllium is provided on this page; including scores of properties, element names in many languages, most known nuclides of Beryllium. Common chemical compounds are also provided for many elements. In addition technical terms are linked to their definitions and the menu contains links to related articles that are a great aid in one's studies.

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Overview of Beryllium

Beryllium's Name in Other Languages

  • Latin: Beryllium
  • Czech: Beryllium
  • Croatian: Berilij
  • French: Glucinium
  • German: Beryllium - s
  • Italian: Berillio
  • Norwegian: Beryllium
  • Portuguese: Berílio
  • Russian: Бериллий
  • Spanish: Berílio
  • Swedish: Beryllium

Atomic Structure of Beryllium

Chemical Properties of Beryllium

Physical Properties of Beryllium

  • Atomic Mass Average: 9.012182
  • Boiling Point: 3243K 2970°C 5378°F
  • Coefficient of lineal thermal expansion/K-1: 0.0000116E-6
  • Conductivity
    Electrical: 0.313 106/cm Ω
    Thermal: 2.01 W/cmK
  • Density: 1.848g/cc @ 300K
  • Description:
    Strong, hard, gray-white metal. Lightest rigid metal. Formerly called glucinium (Gl).
  • Elastic Modulus:
    • Bulk: 110/GPa
    • Rigidity: 156/GPa
    • Youngs: 318/GPa
  • Enthalpy of Atomization: 326.4 kJ/mole @ 25°C
  • Enthalpy of Fusion: 11.72 kJ/mole
  • Enthalpy of Vaporization: 294.7 kJ/mole
  • Flammablity Class: Non-combustible solid (except as dust)
  • Freezing Point: see melting point
  • Hardness Scale
    • Brinell: 600 MN m-2
    • Mohs: 5.5
    • Vickers: 1670 MN m-2
  • Heat of Vaporization: 292.4kJ/mol
  • Melting Point: 1551K 1278°C 2332°F
  • Molar Volume: 4.88 cm3/mole
  • Physical State (at 20°C & 1atm): Solid
  • Specific Heat: 1.82J/gK
  • Vapor Pressure 4.18kPa

Regulatory / Health

  • CAS Number
    • 7440-41-7 metal
  • UN/NA ID and ERG Guide Number
    • UN1567  / 134 powder
  • RTECS: DS1750000
  • NFPA 704
    • Health: 4
    • Fire: 1
    • Reactivity: 1
    • Special Hazard:
  • OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)
    • TWA: 0.002 mg/m3
    • Ceiling: 0.005 mg/m3
    • Notes: Ceiling 0.025 mg/m3 30-min max peak
  • OSHA PEL Vacated 1989
    • TWA: 0.002 mg/m3
    • Ceiling: 0.005 mg/m3
    • Notes: Ceiling 0.025 mg/m3 30-min max peak
  • NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit (REL)
    • Notes: Not to exceed 0.0005 mg/m3
    • IDLH: 4 mg/m3 (Potential NIOSH carcinogen)
  • Routes of Exposure: Inhalation; Skin and/or eye contact
  • Target Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system
  • Levels In Humans:
    Note: this data represents naturally occuring levels of elements in the typical human, it DOES NOT represent recommended daily allowances.
    • Blood/mg dm-3: <1E-5
    • Bone/p.p.m: 0.003
    • Liver/p.p.m: 0.0016
    • Muscle/p.p.m: 0.00075
    • Daily Dietary Intake: 0.01 mg
    • Total Mass In Avg. 70kg human: 0.036 mg

Who / Where / When / How

  • Discoverer: Nicholas Louis Vauquelin
  • Discovery Location: Paris France
  • Discovery Year: 1797
  • Name Origin:
    From the mineral beryl.
  • Abundance of Beryllium:
    • Earth's Crust/p.p.m.: 2.6
    • Seawater/p.p.m.:
      • Atlantic Suface: 8.8E-08
      • Atlantic Deep: 1.75E-07
      • Pacific Surface: 3.5E-08
      • Pacific Deep: 2.2E-07
    • Atmosphere/p.p.m.: N/A
    • Sun (Relative to H=1E12): 14
  • Sources of Beryllium:
    Found mostly in minerals like beryl [AlBe3(Si6O18)] and chrysoberyl (Al2BeO4). Total world production per year is around 364 tons. Main mining areas are Brazil,USA, Madagascar, Germany, Czech Republic, Russia and India. Total world reserves estimated to be around 400,000 tons.
  • Uses of Beryllium:
    Its ability to absorb large amounts of heat makes it useful in spacecraft, missiles, aircraft, etc. Emeralds are beryl crystals with chromium traces giving them their green color. Also used in light weight metal alloys, X-ray tube windows, watch springs and sparkless tools.
  • Additional Notes:
    Beryllium was first discovered by Vauquelin in 1797, however, it was not issolated until 1828 in Berlin Germany and A.A.B bussy in Paris France. Beryllium comes from Greek beryllos, beryl. It has also been called Glucinium or Glucinum from the Greek word glykys which means "sweet." Beryllum is found in beryl, chrysoberyl and phenacite. Aquamarine and emeralds are precious forms of beryl (3BeO.Al2O3.6SiO2). It has a high melting point for a light metal and is more elastic than steel. It is used in computer parts, gyroscopes and for construction. Beryllium and its salts are toxic and should be handled with great care. Do not taste it to confirm that it is sweet. Beryllium is a potential occupational carcinogen (lung cancer).

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