Periodic Table of Elements

Element Iron - Fe

Comprehensive data on the chemical element Iron is provided on this page; including scores of properties, element names in many languages, most known nuclides of Iron. Common chemical compounds are also provided for many elements. In addition technical terms are linked to their definitions and the menu contains links to related articles that are a great aid in one's studies.

Iron Menu

Overview of Iron

Iron's Name in Other Languages

  • Latin: Ferrum
  • Czech: Železo
  • Croatian: Željezo
  • French: Fer
  • German: Eisen - s
  • Italian: Ferro
  • Norwegian: Jern
  • Portuguese: Ferro
  • Russian: Железо
  • Spanish: Hierro
  • Swedish: Järn

Atomic Structure of Iron

Chemical Properties of Iron

Physical Properties of Iron

  • Atomic Mass Average: 55.847
  • Boiling Point: 3023K 2750°C 4982°F
  • Coefficient of lineal thermal expansion/K-1: 12.3E-6
  • Conductivity
    Electrical: 0.0993 106/cm Ω
    Thermal: 0.802 W/cmK
  • Density: 7.874g/cc @ 300K
  • Description:
    Pure iron is lustrous, silvery and easy to work. Iron easily rusts in damp air.
  • Elastic Modulus:
    • Bulk: 170/GPa
    • Rigidity: 82/GPa
    • Youngs: 211/GPa
  • Enthalpy of Atomization: 414.2 kJ/mole @ 25°C
  • Enthalpy of Fusion: 14.9 kJ/mole
  • Enthalpy of Vaporization: 351 kJ/mole
  • Flammablity Class:
  • Freezing Point: see melting point
  • Hardness Scale
    • Brinell: 490 MN m-2
    • Mohs: 4
    • Vickers: 608 MN m-2
  • Heat of Vaporization: 349.6kJ/mol
  • Melting Point: 1808K 1535°C 2795°F
  • Molar Volume: 7.11 cm3/mole
  • Optical Reflectivity: 65%
  • Physical State (at 20°C & 1atm): Solid
  • Specific Heat: 0.44J/gK
  • Vapor Pressure = 7.05Pa@1535°C

Regulatory / Health

  • CAS Number
    • 7439-89-6
  • OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)
    • No limits set by OSHA
  • OSHA PEL Vacated 1989
    • No limits set by OSHA
  • NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit (REL)
    • No limits set by NIOSH
  • Levels In Humans:
    Note: this data represents naturally occuring levels of elements in the typical human, it DOES NOT represent recommended daily allowances.
    • Blood/mg dm-3: 447
    • Bone/p.p.m: 3-380
    • Liver/p.p.m: 250-1400
    • Muscle/p.p.m: 180
    • Daily Dietary Intake: 6-40 mg
    • Total Mass In Avg. 70kg human: 4.2 g
  • Discovery Year: Unknown
  • Name Origin:
    Latin, ferrum; Anglo-Saxon, iron
  • Abundance of Iron:
    • Earth's Crust/p.p.m.: 41000
    • Seawater/p.p.m.:
      • Atlantic Suface: 0.0001
      • Atlantic Deep: 0.0004
      • Pacific Surface: 0.00001
      • Pacific Deep: 0.0001
    • Atmosphere/p.p.m.: N/A
    • Sun (Relative to H=1E12): 3.16E+07
  • Sources of Iron:
    Obtained from hematite, magnetite, goethite, lepidocrocite and siderite. Annual world production is around 716,000,000 tons. Primary areas iron is mined are USA, Canada, Sweden, South Africa, Russia, India and Japan.
  • Uses of Iron:
    Used in steel and other alloys which are used in countless products. It is essential for animals as it is the chief constituent of hemoglobin which carries oxygen in blood vessels. Iron is the most important element of all the metals.
  • Additional Notes:
    Deficiency of iron leads to anaemia, but excess iron in the body causes liver and kidney damage.

Iron Menu


A list of reference sources used to compile the data provided on our periodic table of elements can be found on the main periodic table page.

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