Periodic Table of Elements

Element Germanium - Ge

Comprehensive data on the chemical element Germanium is provided on this page; including scores of properties, element names in many languages, most known nuclides of Germanium. Common chemical compounds are also provided for many elements. In addition technical terms are linked to their definitions and the menu contains links to related articles that are a great aid in one's studies.

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Overview of Germanium

Germanium's Name in Other Languages

  • Latin: Germanium
  • Czech: Germanium
  • Croatian: Germanij
  • French: Germanium
  • German: Germanium - s
  • Italian: Germanio
  • Norwegian: Germanium
  • Portuguese: Germânio
  • Russian: Германий
  • Spanish: Germánio
  • Swedish: Germanium

Atomic Structure of Germanium

Chemical Properties of Germanium

Physical Properties of Germanium

  • Atomic Mass Average: 72.61
  • Boiling Point: 3103K 2830°C 5126°F
  • Coefficient of lineal thermal expansion/K-1: 5.57E-6
  • Conductivity
    Electrical: 1.45E-8 106/cm Ω
    Thermal: 0.599 W/cmk
  • Density: 5.323g/cc @ 300K
  • Description:
    Hard brittle grayish-white metalloid that is stable in air and water. It is unaffected by acids (except HNO3) and alkalis.
  • Elastic Modulus:
    • Rigidity: 29.6/GPa
    • Youngs: 79.9/GPa
  • Enthalpy of Atomization: 376.6 kJ/mole @ 25°C
  • Enthalpy of Fusion: 34.7 kJ/mole
  • Enthalpy of Vaporization: 334.3 kJ/mole
  • Flammablity Class: Combustible Solid, fine dust is easily ignited
  • Freezing Point: see melting point
  • Hardness Scale
    • Mohs: 6
  • Heat of Vaporization: 330.9kJ/mol
  • Melting Point: 1210.55K 937.4°C 1719.3°F
  • Molar Volume: 13.57 cm3/mole
  • Physical State (at 20°C & 1atm): Solid
  • Specific Heat: 0.32J/gK
  • Vapor Pressure = 0.0000746Pa@937.4°C

Regulatory / Health

  • CAS Number
    • 7440-56-4
  • RTECS: 1008063GE
  • OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)
    • No limits set by OSHA
  • OSHA PEL Vacated 1989
    • No limits set by OSHA
  • NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit (REL)
    • No limits set by NIOSH
  • Levels In Humans:
    Note: this data represents naturally occuring levels of elements in the typical human, it DOES NOT represent recommended daily allowances.
    • Blood/mg dm-3: 0.44
    • Bone/p.p.m: n/a
    • Liver/p.p.m: 0.15
    • Muscle/p.p.m: 0.14
    • Daily Dietary Intake: 0.4-1.5 mg
    • Total Mass In Avg. 70kg human: 5 mg

Who / Where / When / How

  • Discoverer: Clemens A Winkler
  • Discovery Location: Freiberg Germany
  • Discovery Year: 1886
  • Name Origin:
    Latin: Germania (Germany).
  • Abundance of Germanium:
    • Earth's Crust/p.p.m.: 1.8
    • Seawater/p.p.m.:
      • Atlantic Suface: 7E-08
      • Atlantic Deep: 1.4E-07
      • Pacific Surface: 3.5E-07
      • Pacific Deep: 0.000006
    • Atmosphere/p.p.m.: N/A
    • Sun (Relative to H=1E12): 3160
  • Sources of Germanium:
    Obtained from refining copper, zinc and lead. Annual world wide production is around 80 tons.
  • Uses of Germanium:
    Widely used in semiconductors, infrared prisms, reflectors in projectors, wide angle lenses and dentistry.
  • Additional Notes:
    In the elemental form it is a lustrous white, brittle metaloid. When crystalized it has a diamond cubic structure. It is a poor conductor and is used in electronics in rectifying devices and transistors. It is also used in dental alloys. There are several compounds which contain germanium. "Germaine" or germanium hydride is a colorless gas GeH4 prepared by the action of lithium aluminum hydride on germanium halide in an ether solution. Germaine is a hazardous substance UN2192 which is classified as a poisonous gas (2.3). It is also a flammable gas (2.1). Other compounds include: Germanium dichloride Ge Cl2, Germanium dioxide GeO2, Germanium tetrachloride GeCl4 this is very irritating to eyes and membranes.

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