Periodic Table of Elements

Element Silicon - Si

Comprehensive data on the chemical element Silicon is provided on this page; including scores of properties, element names in many languages, most known nuclides of Silicon. Common chemical compounds are also provided for many elements. In addition technical terms are linked to their definitions and the menu contains links to related articles that are a great aid in one's studies.

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Overview of Silicon

Silicon's Name in Other Languages

  • Latin: Silicium
  • Czech: Křemík
  • Croatian: Silicij
  • French: Silicium
  • German: Silizium - r
  • Italian: Silicio
  • Norwegian: Silisium
  • Portuguese: Silício
  • Russian: Кремний
  • Spanish: Silicio
  • Swedish: Kisel

Atomic Structure of Silicon

Chemical Properties of Silicon

Physical Properties of Silicon

Regulatory / Health

  • CAS Number
    • 7440-21-3 amorphous powder
  • UN/NA ID and ERG Guide Number
    • 1346  / 170 amorphous powder
  • RTECS: VW0400000
  • OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)
    • TWA: 15 mg/m3 total particulate
       5 mg/m3 respirable particulate
  • OSHA PEL Vacated 1989
    • TWA: 10 mg/m3 total particulate
       5 mg/m3 respirable particulate
  • NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit (REL)
    • TWA: 10 mg/m3 total particulate
       5 mg/m3 respirable particulate
  • Routes of Exposure: Inhalation; Ingestion; Skin and/or eye contact
  • Target Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system
  • Levels In Humans:
    Note: this data represents naturally occuring levels of elements in the typical human, it DOES NOT represent recommended daily allowances.
    • Blood/mg dm-3: 3.9
    • Bone/p.p.m: 17
    • Liver/p.p.m: 12-120
    • Muscle/p.p.m: 100-200
    • Daily Dietary Intake: 18-1200 mg
    • Total Mass In Avg. 70kg human: 1 g

Who / Where / When / How

  • Discoverer: Jöns J. Berzelius
  • Discovery Location: Stockholm Sweden
  • Discovery Year: 1824
  • Name Origin:
    Latin: silex (flint).
  • Abundance of Silicon:
    • Earth's Crust/p.p.m.: 277100
    • Seawater/p.p.m.:
      • Atlantic Suface: 0.03
      • Atlantic Deep: 0.82
      • Pacific Surface: 0.03
      • Pacific Deep: 4.09
    • Atmosphere/p.p.m.: N/A
    • Sun (Relative to H=1E12): 4.47E+07
  • Sources of Silicon:
    Silicon is the second most abundant element and comprises 25% of the earth's crust. Makes up major portion of clay, granite, quartz (SiO2), and sand. Approximate annual world production wide production: electronics grade pure silicon, 5000 tons; metallurgical grade, 480,000 tons; ferrosilicon, 3,400,000. Primary mining areas are Austria, Italy, India, South Africa, Australia, Canada, USA, Brazil.
  • Uses of Silicon:
    Used in glass as silicon dioxide (SiO2). It is used as a semiconductor to make microchips for electronics (like your computer). Silicon is also used in solar cells, tools, cement, grease and oils.
  • Additional Notes:
    Silicon carbide (SiC) is one of the hardest substances known.

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A list of reference sources used to compile the data provided on our periodic table of elements can be found on the main periodic table page.

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