Periodic Table of Elements

Element Nickel - Ni

Comprehensive data on the chemical element Nickel is provided on this page; including scores of properties, element names in many languages, most known nuclides of Nickel. Common chemical compounds are also provided for many elements. In addition technical terms are linked to their definitions and the menu contains links to related articles that are a great aid in one's studies.

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Overview of Nickel

Nickel's Name in Other Languages

  • Latin: Niccolum
  • Czech: Nikl
  • Croatian: Nikal
  • French: Nickel
  • German: Nickel - r
  • Italian: Nichel
  • Norwegian: Nikkel
  • Portuguese: Niquel
  • Russian: Никель
  • Spanish: Níquel
  • Swedish: Nickel

Atomic Structure of Nickel

Chemical Properties of Nickel

Physical Properties of Nickel

  • Atomic Mass Average: 58.6934
  • Boiling Point: 3005K 2732°C 4950°F
  • Coefficient of lineal thermal expansion/K-1: 13.3E-6
  • Conductivity
    Electrical: 0.143 106/cm Ω
    Thermal: 0.907 W/cmK
  • Density: 8.9g/cc @ 300K
  • Description:
    A silvery-white transition metal that is malleable and ductile. Nickel resists corrosion but is soluble in acids. It is, however, unaffected by alkalis.
  • Elastic Modulus:
    • Bulk: 180/GPa
    • Rigidity: 76/GPa
    • Youngs: 200/GPa
  • Enthalpy of Atomization: 422.6 kJ/mole @ 25°C
  • Enthalpy of Fusion: 17.57 kJ/mole
  • Enthalpy of Vaporization: 371.8 kJ/mole
  • Flammablity Class: Combustible Solid
  • Freezing Point: see melting point
  • Hardness Scale
    • Brinell: 700 MN m-2
    • Mohs: 4
    • Vickers: 638 MN m-2
  • Heat of Vaporization: 370.4kJ/mol
  • Melting Point: 1726K 1453°C 2647°F
  • Molar Volume: 6.59 cm3/mole
  • Optical Reflectivity: 72%
  • Physical State (at 20°C & 1atm): Solid
  • Specific Heat: 0.44J/gK
  • Vapor Pressure = 237Pa@1453°C

Regulatory / Health

  • CAS Number
    • 7440-02-0
  • RTECS: QR5950000 (metal)
  • OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)
  • OSHA PEL Vacated 1989
  • NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit (REL)
    • TWA: 0.015 mg/m3
    • IDLH: 10 mg/m3 (Potential NIOSH carcinogen)
  • Routes of Exposure: Inhalation; Ingestion; Skin and/or eye contact
  • Target Organs: Nasal cavities, lungs, skin
  • Levels In Humans:
    Note: this data represents naturally occuring levels of elements in the typical human, it DOES NOT represent recommended daily allowances.
    • Blood/mg dm-3: 0.01-0.05
    • Bone/p.p.m: <0.7
    • Liver/p.p.m: 0.02-1.8
    • Muscle/p.p.m: 1-2
    • Daily Dietary Intake: 0.3-0.5 mg
    • Total Mass In Avg. 70kg human: 15 mg

Who / Where / When / How

  • Discoverer: Axel F Cronstedt
  • Discovery Location: Stockholm Sweden
  • Discovery Year: 1751
  • Name Origin:
    German: kupfernickel (Devil's copper).
  • Abundance of Nickel:
    • Earth's Crust/p.p.m.: 80
    • Seawater/p.p.m.:
      • Atlantic Suface: 0.0001
      • Atlantic Deep: 0.0004
      • Pacific Surface: 0.0001
      • Pacific Deep: 0.00057
    • Atmosphere/p.p.m.: N/A
    • Sun (Relative to H=1E12): 1910000
  • Sources of Nickel:
    Chiefly found in pentlandite [(Ni,Fe)9S8] and garnierite ores. Annual world production is over 1,300,000 tons. The primary mining areas are Russia, South Africa, Australia, New Caledonia, Cuba, Indonesia, USA and Canada.
  • Uses of Nickel:
    Used in electroplating and metal alloys because of its resistance to corrosion. Also in nickel-cadmium batteries; as a catalyst and for coins.
  • Additional Notes:

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